The World Atlas of Language Structures (WALS)

20 Sep

WALS

The World Atlas of Language Structures (WALS) http://wals.info is a large database of structural (phonological, grammatical, lexical) properties of languages gathered from descriptive materials (such as reference grammars) by a team of 55 authors (many of them the leading authorities on the subject).

The first version of WALS was published as a book with CD-ROM in 2005 by Oxford University Press. The first online version was published in April 2008. Both are superseeded by the current online version, published in April 2011.

WALS Online is a joint effort of the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology and the Max Planck Digital Library. It is a separate publication, edited by Dryer, Matthew S. & Haspelmath, Martin (Munich: Max Planck Digital Library, 2011) ISBN: 978-3-9813099-1-1. The main programmer is Robert Forkel.

Chapters

Introductory supplements
i Introduction by Bernard Comrie , Matthew   S. Dryer , David Gil and Martin Haspelmath
ii Abbreviations
iii Help
Feature   Chapters
Phonology
1 Consonant Inventories by Ian Maddieson
2 Vowel Quality Inventories by Ian Maddieson
3 Consonant-Vowel Ratio by Ian Maddieson
4 Voicing in   Plosives and Fricatives by Ian Maddieson
5 Voicing and Gaps in Plosive Systems by Ian Maddieson
6 Uvular Consonants by Ian Maddieson
7 Glottalized Consonants by Ian Maddieson
8 Lateral Consonants by Ian Maddieson
9 The Velar Nasal by Gregory D.S. Anderson
10 Vowel Nasalization by John Hajek
11 Front Rounded Vowels by Ian Maddieson
12 Syllable Structure by Ian Maddieson
13 Tone   by Ian Maddieson
14 Fixed Stress Locations by Rob Goedemans and Harry van der Hulst
15 Weight-Sensitive Stress by Rob Goedemans and Harry van der Hulst
16 Weight Factors in Weight-Sensitive Stress Systems by Rob Goedemans and Harry van der Hulst
17 Rhythm Types by Rob Goedemans and Harry van der Hulst
18 Absence of   Common Consonants by Ian Maddieson
19 Presence of   Uncommon Consonants by Ian Maddieson
Morphology
20 Fusion of Selected Inflectional Formatives by Balthasar Bickel and Johanna Nichols
21 Exponence of Selected Inflectional Formatives by Balthasar Bickel and Johanna Nichols
22 Inflectional   Synthesis of the Verb by Balthasar   Bickel and Johanna Nichols
23 Locus of   Marking in the Clause by Johanna Nichols and Balthasar   Bickel
24 Locus of Marking in Possessive Noun Phrases by Johanna Nichols and Balthasar   Bickel
25 Locus of Marking: Whole-language Typology by Johanna Nichols and Balthasar   Bickel
26 Prefixing vs. Suffixing in Inflectional Morphology by Matthew S. Dryer
27 Reduplication by Carl Rubino
28 Case Syncretism by Matthew Baerman and Dunstan   Brown
29 Syncretism in Verbal Person/Number Marking by Matthew Baerman and Dunstan   Brown
Nominal Categories
30 Number of Genders by Greville G. Corbett
31 Sex-based and Non-sex-based Gender Systems by Greville G. Corbett
32 Systems of   Gender Assignment by Greville G. Corbett
33 Coding of Nominal Plurality by Matthew S. Dryer
34 Occurrence   of Nominal Plurality by Martin Haspelmath
35 Plurality in Independent Personal Pronouns by Michael Daniel
36 The Associative Plural by Michael Daniel and Edith Moravcsik
37 Definite Articles by Matthew S. Dryer
38 Indefinite Articles by Matthew S. Dryer
39 Inclusive/Exclusive Distinction in Independent   Pronouns by Michael Cysouw
40 Inclusive/Exclusive Distinction in Verbal Inflection by Michael Cysouw
41 Distance Contrasts in Demonstratives by Holger Diessel
42 Pronominal and Adnominal Demonstratives by Holger Diessel
43 Third Person Pronouns and Demonstratives by D.N.S. Bhat
44 Gender Distinctions in Independent Personal Pronouns by Anna Siewierska
45 Politeness Distinctions in Pronouns by Johannes Helmbrecht
46 Indefinite Pronouns by Martin Haspelmath
47 Intensifiers and Reflexive Pronouns by Ekkehard   König and Peter Siemund (with Stephan   Töpper )
48 Person   Marking on Adpositions by Dik   Bakker
49 Number of Cases by Oliver A. Iggesen
50 Asymmetrical Case-Marking by Oliver A. Iggesen
51 Position of Case Affixes by Matthew S. Dryer
52 Comitatives   and Instrumentals by Thomas Stolz , Cornelia   Stroh and Aina Urdze
53 Ordinal Numerals by Thomas Stolz and Ljuba N. Veselinova
54 Distributive Numerals by David Gil
55 Numeral Classifiers by David Gil
56 Conjunctions and Universal Quantifiers by David Gil
57 Position of Pronominal Possessive Affixes by Matthew S. Dryer
Nominal Syntax
58 Obligatory   Possessive Inflection by Balthasar   Bickel and Johanna Nichols
59 Possessive Classification by Johanna Nichols and Balthasar   Bickel
60 Genitives, Adjectives and Relative Clauses by David Gil
61 Adjectives without Nouns by David Gil
62 Action   Nominal Constructions by Maria Koptjevskaja-Tamm
63 Noun Phrase Conjunction by Leon Stassen
64 Nominal and   Verbal Conjunction by Martin Haspelmath
Verbal Categories
65 Perfective/Imperfective   Aspect by Östen Dahl and Viveka Velupillai
66 The Past Tense by Östen Dahl and Viveka Velupillai
67 The Future Tense by Östen Dahl and Viveka Velupillai
68 The Perfect by Östen Dahl and Viveka Velupillai
69 Position of   Tense-Aspect Affixes by Matthew   S. Dryer
70 The   Morphological Imperative by Johan van der Auwera and Ludo Lejeune (with Umarani Pappuswamy and Valentin Goussev )
71 The Prohibitive by Johan van der Auwera and Ludo Lejeune (with Valentin Goussev )
72 Imperative-Hortative   Systems by Johan van der Auwera , Nina Dobrushina and Valentin Goussev
73 The Optative by Nina Dobrushina , Johan van der Auwera and Valentin Goussev
74 Situational Possibility by Johan van der Auwera and Andreas   Ammann
75 Epistemic Possibility by Johan van der Auwera and Andreas   Ammann
76 Overlap between Situational and Epistemic Modal   Marking by Johan van der Auwera and Andreas   Ammann
77 Semantic Distinctions of Evidentiality by Ferdinand de Haan
78 Coding of Evidentiality by Ferdinand de Haan
79 Suppletion According to Tense and Aspect by Ljuba N. Veselinova
80 Verbal   Number and Suppletion by Ljuba N. Veselinova
Word Order
81 Order of   Subject, Object and Verb by Matthew   S. Dryer
82 Order of Subject and Verb by Matthew S. Dryer
83 Order of Object and Verb by Matthew S. Dryer
84 Order of   Object, Oblique, and Verb by Matthew   S. Dryer (with Orin D. Gensler )
85 Order of Adposition and Noun Phrase by Matthew   S. Dryer
86 Order of Genitive and Noun by Matthew S. Dryer
87 Order of Adjective and Noun by Matthew S. Dryer
88 Order of   Demonstrative and Noun by Matthew   S. Dryer
89 Order of Numeral and Noun by Matthew S. Dryer
90 Order of   Relative Clause and Noun by Matthew   S. Dryer
91 Order of   Degree Word and Adjective by Matthew   S. Dryer
92 Position of Polar Question Particles by Matthew S. Dryer
93 Position of Interrogative Phrases in Content   Questions by Matthew S. Dryer
94 Order of Adverbial Subordinator and Clause by Matthew S. Dryer
95 Relationship between the Order of Object and Verb   and the Order of Adposition and Noun Phrase by Matthew S. Dryer
96 Relationship between the Order of Object and Verb   and the Order of Relative Clause and Noun by Matthew   S. Dryer
97 Relationship between the Order of Object and Verb   and the Order of Adjective and Noun by Matthew   S. Dryer
143 Order of Negative Morpheme and Verb by Matthew   S. Dryer
144 Position of Negative Morpheme With Respect to   Subject, Object, and Verb by Matthew   S. Dryer
Simple Clauses
98-99 Alignment of Case Marking by Bernard Comrie
100 Alignment of   Verbal Person Marking by Anna Siewierska
101 Expression   of Pronominal Subjects by Matthew   S. Dryer
102 Verbal Person Marking by Anna Siewierska
103 Third Person Zero of Verbal Person Marking by Anna Siewierska
104 Order of Person Markers on the Verb by Anna Siewierska
105 Ditransitive Constructions: The Verb ‘Give’ by Martin Haspelmath
106 Reciprocal Constructions by Elena Maslova and Vladimir P. Nedjalkov
107 Passive Constructions by Anna Siewierska
108 Antipassive Constructions by Maria Polinsky
109 Applicative Constructions by Maria Polinsky
110 Periphrastic Causative Constructions by Jae Jung Song
111 Nonperiphrastic Causative Constructions by Jae Jung Song
112 Negative Morphemes by Matthew S. Dryer
113 Symmetric and Asymmetric Standard Negation by Matti Miestamo
114 Subtypes of Asymmetric Standard Negation by Matti Miestamo
115 Negative Indefinite Pronouns and Predicate Negation by Martin Haspelmath
116 Polar Questions by Matthew S. Dryer
117 Predicative Possession by Leon Stassen
118 Predicative Adjectives by Leon Stassen
119 Nominal and   Locational Predication by Leon Stassen
120 Zero Copula   for Predicate Nominals by Leon Stassen
121 Comparative Constructions by Leon Stassen
Complex Sentences
122 Relativization on Subjects by Bernard Comrie and Tania   Kuteva
123 Relativization on Obliques by Bernard Comrie and Tania   Kuteva
124 ‘Want’ Complement Subjects by Martin Haspelmath
125 Purpose Clauses by Sonia Cristofaro
126 ‘When’ Clauses by Sonia Cristofaro
127 Reason Clauses by Sonia Cristofaro
128 Utterance   Complement Clauses by Sonia Cristofaro
Lexicon
129 Hand and Arm by Cecil H. Brown
130 Finger and Hand by Cecil H. Brown
131 Numeral Bases by Bernard Comrie
132-135 Colour Terms by Paul Kay and Luisa Maffi
136-137 Personal Pronouns by Johanna Nichols and David A. Peterson
138 Tea by   Östen Dahl
Sign Languages
139 Irregular Negatives in Sign Languages by Ulrike Zeshan
140 Question Particles in Sign Languages by Ulrike Zeshan
Other
141 Writing Systems by Bernard Comrie
142 Para-Linguistic   Usages of Clicks by David Gil
Additional supplements
iv Genealogical Language List by Matthew S. Dryer
v Sampling   Case and Tense Formatives by Balthasar   Bickel and Johanna Nichols
vi Determining   Dominant Word Order by Matthew   S. Dryer
vii Tense and Aspect by Östen Dahl and Viveka Velupillai
viii Relativization Strategies by Bernard Comrie and Tania   Kuteva
ix Sign Languages by Ulrike Zeshan

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